Gerry McDonnell



Iron -  Fe

Iron was fundamental to many societies.  The production (smelting) and manufacture of iron artefacts (smithing) is complex requiring and understanding and integration of geology, metallurgy and archaeology.  The study of iron has been hampered by several factors, not least on the blind belief in the so called bloomery process.  These pages will clearly define the issues, provide some answers, but most importantly raises questions.

Geology and Iron Ores

Iron production - Iron Smelting

Smelting Slags


Iron Alloys

Iron Smithing  - Artefact Manufacture

Smithing Slags

Metallurgy of Iron and Steel

Slag Inclusions